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3 Frequently Asked Questions About ACL Surgery

Geff Long
2748

Do I really need surgery?
There several things that will affect this answer. Do you plan on playing sports or are you happy giving them up and doing things less stressful on the knees? If you can give up the sports that are rough on the knees, you might get by without surgery. Does your knee “go out” a lot? If it does and you have little control over it, surgery would probably be your best bet. If you would like to try rehabbing your knee and wearing a brace to see if that works, go ahead. Just keep in mind that every time your knee goes out of place, there is more damage being done. That is the route I took and I’m a little bit sorry about it. I ended up doing a lot of damage that I could have avoided.
Should I use general anesthesia or regional?
Either way will work. There are people on both sides of the fence that will tell you one is better than the other. Don’t always listen, it’s a very personal choice. With general anesthesia, you will be unconscious and have no recollection of the surgery. It will feel like you have simply blinked and the surgery will be over. General anesthesia has a bad effect on some people though. It could make you sick to your stomach for a few days. Doctors don’t know exactly why or how general anesthesia does what it does, so there is always a slight risk. Some people are afraid they won’t wake up. But the risk is very, VERY small.
Regional anesthesia can be given to you a couple different ways. It will either be an epidural or a spinal. They are very similar. Both are injected into your back. As a result, the pain signals from your knee never reach the brain. They are blocked by the regional anesthesia. This will allow you to be “awake” for the surgery. Now I say “awake” because you can choose your level of awareness. You can choose to have a regional anesthetic and still not be aware or remember a single thing from your surgery. This is done by giving you a sedative. The anesthesiologist will probably ask you what level you want.
1. Awake, Aware, but unconcerned.
2. Awake, Somewhat aware, not concerned.
3. Awake, and not aware.
4. Hammered. (They will give you enough of the sedative to make you sleep, but if you were to wake up during the surgery, you wouldn’t care and probably wouldn’t remember waking up anyway.)
How hard is physical therapy and does it hurt?
Physical Therapy isn’t all that bad. Some things are easy and some are hard. One thing that is a little painful are the extension and flexion exercises. And after a while, those don’t really hurt that much either. I’ve heard horror stories from people who say that PT (Physical Therapy) was the worst and they cried every time they had to do it, but that wasn’t my experience at all. The exercises get tougher as you go, but it’s a good feeling to be doing some work.
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3 Easy Ways To Buy Contact Lenses Online

Brandon Hopkins
4379
date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:12
category:health
article:

Trying to find the simplest way to order your contact lenses may have been a difficult feat in the past, but not anymore. With the world wide web so easily accessible to many, the availability of ordering the perfect contact lens online is great. The following paragraphs will give some valuable tips for locating contact lens online retailers and purchasing them from your computer.
There are many contact lens online retailers, that offer their contact lenses for purchase via the internet. These contact lens online retailers have their own web pages, where there are descriptions of the different contact lens types available for purchase and the different contact lens styles. Most contact lens online retailers will also offer contact lens cases, cleaning solution, and other contact lens supplies for purchase.
Generating a list of contact lens online retailers is a simple procedure that can be done by utilizing any search engine. By entering “contact lens online retailer” into the search engine of choice, and hitting the search button, a list of links will appear for contact lens online retailers. Clicking the different links in this list will lead to individual web pages for contact lens online retailers. From there, browsing the contact lens online retailer web page should be simple.
Most contact lens online retailers have web pages that are easy to maneuver. Most of the vital information will be found on the home page, and the other information will be just as easy to view. A majority of contact lens online retailers will provide simple instructions to follow for purchasing contact lenses online, and credit card information is almost always a requirement for payment, although some contact lens online retailers will be willing to send a bill with the shipment.
Ordering discount contact lenses has never been more simple. The world wide web has made it possible to purchase contact lenses through the computer. By searching the internet for contact lens online retailers, it is possible to order new contact lenses without even leaving home. With, and sometimes without a credit card, contact lens online retailers are eager to provide their services to make purchasing contact lenses a more convenient task.
If you are ready to get started, click the first link to a contact lens site you find and see what they offer!
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3 Easy And Convenient Natural Skin Care Solutions

Jerrick Foo
4494
date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:12
category:health
article:

Natural skin care solutions may seem hard to find, or too overwhelmingto decide which is best for your skin. You wander the aisles trying tofigure out which ones are a real skin care solution. You trycucumbers or tea bags over your eyes, and other recipes and advise fromfriends, but none of their skin care solutions are working for you. Noneed to fret!
Here are 3 easy solutions for you:
1. A mixture of lavender, German chamomile, frankincense, wheat germ,grape seed, jojoba and olive oils can make great skin care for your face.It can reduce or help prevent wrinkles. You can also use these oils tocreate your own body oils and lotions. The best thing about naturalskin care is you get to customize it just for you!
2. For exfoliation, you can use any of the oils mentioned above, orothers that you enjoy and mix with a salt scrub. Use this to exfoliate yourskin for soothing and relaxing, natural skin care solution.
3. Some perfumes can aggravate your skin, giving you unsightly rashesand even effect your allergies. This happens because of the chemicalsused in most manufactured perfumes. You can create your own naturalperfumes with a jojoba oil base and various blends of essential oils. Mix andmatch, experiment to create a natural perfume that you enjoy.
Essential oils are excellent for the creation of your own natural skincare uses. It’s also fun to make your own natural skin care solutionsusing different oils and bases! Have fun while taking care of your skinwith products that you know what ingredients are being put in it. Youcan take control of your skin care with your own natural skin caresolutions!
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3 Biggest Benefits of Strength Training

Jeffrey Bedeaux
1755

Strength training is exercise that uses resistance to strengthen and condition the musculoskeletal system, improving muscle tone and endurance. “Strength training” is used as a general term synonymous with other common terms: “weightlifting” and “resistance training.” Physiologically, the benefits of consistent strength training include an increase in muscle size and tone, increased muscular strength, and increases in tendon, bone, and ligament strength. Lifting weights has also been shown to improve psychological health as well, by increasing self-esteem, confidence and self-worth.
Improved Physical Appearance and Performance
One important result of strength training is increased physical performance. Muscles quite literally utilize energy to produce movement, functioning as the engine or powerhouse of the body. Strength training increases the muscles’ size, strength, and endurance, which contribute to improvements in our work, favorite sports hobbies, and our general day-to-day activities.
Another benefit of a good strength-training program is its effect on our overall appearance and body composition. Which can directly influence self-esteem, self-worth, and level of confidence. Take, for example, a 170-pound man who has 20 percent body fat; 34 pounds of fat weight and 136 pounds of lean body weight (muscle, bones, organs, water, etc). By beginning an effective strength training program, he replaces five pounds of fat with five pounds of muscle. He still weighs 170 pounds, but he is now 17 percent fat with 29 pounds of fat weight and 141 pounds of lean body weight. Although his body weight remains the same, his strength, muscle tone, and metabolism have improved, giving him a fit appearance.
Both our physical appearance and our physical performance can be improved by muscle gain or hampered by muscle loss. Research indicates that unless we strength train regularly; we lose about one-half pound of muscle every year of our lives after age 30. Unless we implement a safe and effective weight lifting program, our muscles gradually decrease in size and strength in the process called “atrophy.”
Lifting weights is therefore important for preventing the muscle loss that normally accompanies the aging process. A common misconception is that as we reach the age of senior citizens, it is normal to stop being active and to start using ambulatory aides like canes and wheelchairs. Many people think we have no choice; they think this is normal.
But this couldn’t be further from the truth. There is absolutely no reason why all of us can’t be physically, mentally, socially, and sexually active, living a healthy vibrant life until our last day on Earth! The reason many elderly people rely on ambulatory aides and become slower and fatter is simply that over the years their muscles have been wasting away, so their physical performance and metabolism also decrease, becoming less efficient.
Increased Metabolic Efficiency (your ability to burn excess calories)
That one-half pound of muscle loss every year after age 30 produces a one-half percent reduction in basal metabolic rate (BMR) every year. A reduction in BMR means that our bodies are less able to use the food we consume as energy, thus more gets stored as body fat. “Basal metabolic rate” refers to the energy used by our body at rest to maintain normal body functions.
Our muscles have high-energy requirements. Even when we are sleeping, our muscles use more than 25% of our energy (calories). When you implement the principles of effective strength training and you are consistent in your program, you will achieve an increase in lean muscle mass throughout your body and increase your BMR. In other words, you can actually condition your metabolism to work better and more efficiently even when you are at rest.
An increase in muscle tissue causes an increase in metabolic rate, and a decrease in muscle tissue causes a decrease in metabolic rate. You can see that anyone interested in decreasing body fat percentage and their risk of disease as well as in increasing physical performance and appearance, should be strength training to help condition their metabolism (BMR).
One of the biggest mistakes people make when starting a weight-management program is not including a strength training routine with their cardiovascular exercise and low-fat eating regimen. This is unfortunate because when we cut calories without exercise, we can lose muscle as well as fat.
Decreased Risk of Sustaining an Injury
Our muscles also function as shock absorbers and serve as important balancing agents throughout our body. Well-conditioned muscles help to lessen the repetitive landing forces in weight-bearing activities such as jogging or playing basketball. Well-balanced muscles reduce the risk of injuries that result when a muscle is weaker than its opposing muscle group.
To reduce the risk of unbalanced muscle development, you should make sure that when you are training a specific muscle group, the opposing muscle groups are being trained as well (though not necessarily on the same day). For example, if you are doing bench-pressing exercises for your chest, you should include some rowing exercises for your back muscles as well.
By now you have probably realized that weightlifting should be an important part of your exercise routine. Weightlifting provides many important benefits that cannot be achieved by any other exercise or activity. When you begin achieving great results, the excitement and fun you experience will make the change well worth the effort. Good luck; I hope you enjoy all the wonderful benefits of an effective strength training program.

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3 Amazing Ways to Shape Up Your Muscles in Less Than 7 days!

Venkata Ramana
1145

Imagine you need to look great to get all the attention at the biggest party of the year. The cloak has already started ticking and you have got 7 days to fix yourself for the D-Day. If you can take out 15 to 30 minutes in the next few days, you can be ready for action.
Step 1:
Exercise: Start with skipping and jogging and chin-ups by hanging from a rod for warming up.
Two steps of crunches or sit-ups for strengthening and toning your abdominal muscles.
Then go for Flat bench press and dumbbell flyers for the entire chest area, focusing mainly on the inner chest and followed by 2 sets of push-ups.
Work on your trapezium for the collar muscle and shoulder pressing.
For biceps the exercise to be followed is standing barbell curl.
Next you can work out on your Triceps with Single dumbbell or French press and fore forearms.
Skipping will have an effect on your legs, other wise you can go for Squats and back with lat pull down.
Step 2:
Diets are just as important as exercise, because it is the most important part of getting the body you want. You have to eat good to look good. You need protein, and you don’t need fat. Stay away from junk and fatty foods. Not all fat is bad; there is a healthy fat. This fat can be found in fish, Nuts and some oils. Have Lots of fibers such as leafy vegetables, salads and daily products.
Step 3: The results though wont come easily and they wont come very fast either, So Stay dedicated, motivated and consistent, and do all 3 steps correctly to get the desired result.
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3 Amazing ways to Shape up in Less than 7 days!

Venkata Ramana
1087
date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:10
category:health
article:

Imagine you need to look great to get all the attention at the biggest party of the year. The cloak has already started ticking and you have got 7 days to fix yourself for the D-Day. If you can take out 15 to 30 minutes in the next few days, you can be ready for action.
Step 1:
>> Exercise: Start with skipping and jogging and chin-ups by hanging from a rod for warming up.
>> Two steps of crunches or sit-ups for strengthening and toning your abdominal muscles.
>> Then go for Flat bench press and dumbbell flyers for the entire chest area, focusing mainly on the inner chest and followed by 2 sets of push-ups.
>> Work on your trapezium for the collar muscle and shoulder pressing.
>> For biceps the exercise to be followed is standing barbell curl.
>> Next you can work out on your Triceps with Single dumbbell or French press and fore forearms.
>> Skipping will have an effect on your legs, other wise you can go for Squats and back with lat pull down.
Step 2:
Diets are just as important as exercise, because it is the most important part of getting the body you want. You have to eat good to look good. You need protein, and you don’t need fat. Stay away from junk and fatty foods. Not all fat is bad; there is a healthy fat. This fat can be found in fish, Nuts and some oils. Have Lots of fibers such as leafy vegetables, salads and daily products.
Step 3: The results though wont come easily and they wont come very fast either, So Stay dedicated, motivated and consistent, and do all 3 steps correctly to get the desired result.
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Online Pilates

25 Ways Get 10 Mins Of Fitness Exercise-PT#2

Word Count:
291

For the best Online Pilates company, call Cara McGrath Pilates.

Around the House

1. When you go outside to pick up your morning newspaper, take a brisk 5-minute walk up the street in one direction and back in the other.

2. If you’re housebound caring for a sick child or grandchild, hop on an exercise bike or treadmill while your ailing loved one naps.

3. Try 5 to 10 minutes of jumping jacks. (A 150-pound woman can burn 90 calories in one 10-minute session.)

4. Cooking dinner? Do standing push-ups while you wait for a pot to bo…

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Around the House

1. When you go outside to pick up your morning newspaper, take a brisk 5-minute walk up the street in one direction and back in the other.

2. If you’re housebound caring for a sick child or grandchild, hop on an exercise bike or treadmill while your ailing loved one naps.

3. Try 5 to 10 minutes of jumping jacks. (A 150-pound woman can burn 90 calories in one 10-minute session.)

4. Cooking dinner? Do standing push-ups while you wait for a pot to boil. Stand about an arm’s length from the kitchen counter, and push your arms against the counter. Push in and out to work your arms and shoulders.

5. After dinner, go outside and play tag or shoot baskets with your kids and their friends.

6. Just before bed or while you’re giving yourself a facial at night, do a few repetitions of some dumbbell exercises, suggests exercise instructor Sheila Cluff, owner and founder of The Oaks at Ojai and The Palms, in Palm Springs, CA, who keeps a set of free weights on a shelf in front of her bathroom sink.

While Waiting

7. Walk around the block several times while you wait for your child to take a music lesson. As your fitness level improves, add 1-minute bursts of jogging to your walks.

8. Walk around medical buildings if you have a long wait for a doctor’s appointment. “I always ask the receptionist to give me an idea of how long I have left to wait,” Cluff says. “Most are usually very willing to tell you.”

9. While your son or daughter plays a soccer game, walk around the field.

10. Turn a trip to a park with your child into a mini-workout for you. Throw a ball back and forth and run for fly balls.

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25 Ways Get 10 Mins Of Fitness Exercise-PT#1

Word Count:
431

For the best Online Pilates company, call Cara McGrath Pilates.

Experts recommend working out 45 minutes to an hour a day (30 minutes for beginners) for weight loss and fitness. But if you’re like most women, you don’t always have a block of 30 to 60 minutes a day to devote exclusively to doing your workouts.

You can still exercise–you just need to sneak in the equivalent in re ful ways. “The idea is to keep moving,” says fitness expert Ann Grandjean, EdD. “Get a cordless phone or put a long cord on your regular phone, and walk w…

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To find the best Online Pilates company, click here for Cara McGrath Pilates.
Experts recommend working out 45 minutes to an hour a day (30 minutes for beginners) for weight loss and fitness. But if you’re like most women, you don’t always have a block of 30 to 60 minutes a day to devote exclusively to doing your workouts.

You can still exercise–you just need to sneak in the equivalent in re ful ways. “The idea is to keep moving,” says fitness expert Ann Grandjean, EdD. “Get a cordless phone or put a long cord on your regular phone, and walk when you talk. Find whatever works for you and just move. Park half a mile from the mall and walk. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Those little, itty-bitty things add up.”

Every Stolen Moment Adds Up

Lest you think that short bursts of activity have a negligible effect on your fitness program, think again. One study found that women who split their exercise into 10-minute increments were more likely to exercise consistently, and lost more weight after 5 months, than women who exercised for 20 to 40 minutes at a time.

In a landmark study conducted at the University of Virginia, exercise physiologist Glenn Gaesser, PhD, asked men and women to complete 15 10-minute exercise routines a week. After just 21 days, the volunteers’ aerobic fitness was equal to that of people 10 to 15 years younger. Their strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility were equal to those of people up to 20 years their junior.

In yet another study, researchers at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore found that for improving health and fitness in inactive adults, many short bursts of activity are as effective as longer, structured workouts. “It would be useful for people to get out of the all-or-nothing mind-set that unless they exercise for 30 minutes, they’re wasting their time,” says Gaesser.

Breaking exercise into small chunks on your overscheduled days can also keep your confidence up, says Harold Taylor, time management expert and owner of Harold Taylor Time Consultants in Toronto, who has written extensively on the subject. “Skipping exercise altogether is ‘de-motivational’–you feel depressed and guilty,” Taylor says. “If you skip it, you tend to figure, ‘What’s the use? I can’t keep up with it anyway.’ Yet as long as you make some effort each day, that motivates you onward. Success breeds success.”

Keep in mind, though, that short bursts of exercise are meant to supplement, not replace, your regular fitness routine. Here’s a roundup of practical ways to work exercise into your day even when you “don’t have time to exercise.” (You don’t have to do them all in 1 day; select what works for you.)

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25 Uses for Essential Oils in Your Daily Life

Paula Polman
1344

Aromatherapy is a growing area of interest as North America continues its search for alternative and complimentary applications of natural medicines. The use of herbal supplements in our daily lives is one excellent example of this.
Aromatherapy, however, is still in the realm of uncertainty. People are familiar with the term, most have heard of essential oils, but still few know how to use them in practical applications.
Here’s a short list of some examples of ways to enhance your daily life with essential oils.

Diffuse in air with a ceramic or electric diffuser to clean or fragrance the air.
Facial steam – add a few drops of oils to boiling water, place your face over the bowl and drape your head with a towel and breathe deeply.
Bath water – add 4-10 drops to your bath or jacuzzi.
Skin spray – add 4-10 drops of oil to 60 mls (2 oz) distilled water in a misting bottle then spray skin for a fresh uplift to the day.
Linen spray to freshen sheets & towels – same as the skin spray but mix 20-30 drops to 60 ml (2 oz) and spray your sheets.
Remove the cap from the oil bottle and breathe deeply for a quick pick-me-up.
Room spray – same as linen spray but the concentration is 50-75 drops to 60 ml (2 oz) of distilled water.
Hand or foot bath – add 4-6 drops of oil to warm water and soak your hands or feet in it. For tired feet, also add 2 tablespoons of epsom salts to the water.
Massage oil is easily made by adding 10-20 drops of oil to 30 ml (1 oz) of carrier oil, such as grapeseed, olive, sweet almond, jojoba, etc. Cut the amount of essential oil in half for children.
After your shower, put a few drops of oil on a washcloth and rub vigorously over your body.
Put a few drops of eucalyptus oil on a cloth by your pillow at night to help breathing when struck by a cold or flu.
Hot compresses are wonderful on sore, tired muscles. Add 5-10 drops of oil to hot (not boiling) water. Soak a cloth in the water, wring it out and place on the affected area. Repeat as needed.
Cold compresses – for headaches and swelling. Same as hot compresses but use cool to cold water.
Sniff lavender or peppermint for headaches.
Dab tea tree on acne pimples to help clear up the infections.
Revive old potpourri mixes by adding 10-20 drops to the mix and stirring.
Create your own perfumes by blending favourite oils in beeswax or oil bases and apply.
Sniff peppermint oil for nausea, including morning sickness, motion sickness and carnival rides.
For infant colic, apply a warm – not hot – compress with roman chamomile on the tummy.
Massage menstrual cramps with clary sage diluted in a vegetable carrier oil like grapeseed or jojoba.
Gently massage varicose veins with a massage oil containing cypress.
Add a few drops of eucalyptus to your shampoo to help dandruff problems.
Help smooth wrinkles by massaging nightly with a few drops of frankincense diluted in sweet almond oil or rosehip seed oil.
For depression diffuse jasmine or rose in the air.
After a long night on the town, add juniper to your bath to help detoxify your body.

Remember, that essential oils are generally too concentrated to use directly on your skin. They need to be diluted for application. As with anything, there are exceptions.
Lavender and tea tree are the most commonly used oils that can be applied directly on the skin (neat) in small doses.
There are many excellent re s on essential oils and their effects on body, spirit and mind. Some oils have contra-indications so it is important that you learn about any oil before using it.
Essential oils are great companions to enhancing your daily life, when used appropriately.
Break out a bottle of oil and sniff it today!

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24 Good Reasons Why You May Need Vitamin Supplements

David Exon
2292

Many people believe that eating a well balanced diet provides all the vitamins and minerals necessary for good health. In ideal circumstances, this is the case, but in reality there are many reasons why you may need vitamin supplements to cope with living in the twentieth century environment. Taking vitamins when required is a safe method of optimizing your dietary s of nutrients, providing you follow the instructions on product labels.
1. Poor Digestion
Even when your food intake is good, inefficient digestion can limit your body’s uptake of vitamins. Some common causes of inefficient digestion are not chewing well enough and eating too fast. Both of these result in larger than normal food particle size, too large to allow complete action of digestive enzymes. Many people with dentures are unable to chew as efficiently as those with a full set of original teeth.
2. Hot Coffee, Tea and Spices
Habitual drinking of liquids that are too hot, or consuming an excess of irritants such as coffee, tea or pickles and spices can cause inflammation of the digestive linings, resulting in a drop in secretion of digestive fluids and poorer extraction of vitamins and minerals from food.
3. Alcohol
Drinking too much alcohol is known to damage the liver and pancreas which are vital to digestion and metabolism. It can also damage the lining of the intestinal tract and adversely affect the absorption of nutrients, leading to sub-clinical malnutrition. Regular heavy use of alcohol increases the body’s need for the B-group vitamins, particularly thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid and vitamins B12, A and C as well as the minerals zinc, magnesium and calcium. Alcohol affects availability, absorption and metabolism of nutrients.
4. Smoking
Smoking too much tobacco is also an irritant to the digestive tract and increases the metabolic requirements of Vitamin C, all else being equal, by at least 30mg per cigarette over and above the typical requirements of a non-smoker. Vitamin C which is normally present in such foods as paw paws, oranges and capsicums, oxidizes rapidly once these fruits are cut, juiced, cooked or stored in direct sunlight or near heat. Vitamin C is important to the immune function.
5. Laxatives
Overuse of laxatives can result in poor absorption of vitamins and minerals from food, by hastening the intestinal transit time. Paraffin and other mineral oils increase losses of fat soluble vitamins A, E and K. Other laxatives used to excess can cause large losses of minerals such as potassium, sodium and magnesium.
6. Fad Diets
Bizarre diets that miss out on whole groups of foods can be seriously lacking in vitamins. Even the popular low fat diets, if taken to an extreme, can be deficient in vitamins A, D and E. Vegetarian diets, which can exclude meat and other animal s, must be very skillfully planned to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency, which may lead to anemia.
7. Overcooking
Lengthy cooking or reheating of meat and vegetables can oxidize and destroy heat susceptible vitamins such as the B-group, C and E. Boiling vegetables leaches the water soluble vitamins B-group and C as well as many minerals. Light steaming is preferable. Some vitamins, such as vitamin B6 can be destroyed by irradiation from microwaves.
8. Food Processing
Freezing food containing vitamin E can significantly reduce its levels once defrosted. Foods containing vitamin E exposed to heat and air can turn rancid. Many common s of vitamin E, such as bread and oils are nowadays highly processed, so that the vitamin E content is significantly reduced or missing totally, which increases storage life but can lower nutrient levels. Vitamin E is an antioxidant which defensively inhibits oxidative damage to all tissues. Other vitamin losses from food processing include vitamin B1 and C.
9. Convenience Foods
A diet overly dependent on highly refined carbohydrates, such as sugar, white flour and white rice, places greater demand on additional s of B-group vitamins to process these carbohydrates. An unbalanced diet contributes to such conditions as irritability, lethargy and sleep disorders.
10. Antibiotics
Some antibiotics although valuable in fighting infection, also kill off friendly bacteria in the gut, which would normally be producing B-group vitamins to be absorbed through the intestinal walls. Such deficiencies can result in a variety of nervous conditions, therefore it may be advisable to supplement with B-group vitamins when on a lengthy course of broad spectrum antibiotics.
11. Food Allergies
The omission of whole food groups from the diet, as in the case of individuals allergic to gluten or lactose, can mean the loss of significant dietary s of nutrients such as thiamine, riboflavin or calcium.
12. Crop Nutrient Losses
Some agricultural soils are deficient in trace elements. Decades of intensive agriculture can overwork and deplete soils, unless all the soil nutrients, including trace elements, are regularly replaced. This means that food crops can be depleted of nutrients due to poor soil management. In one U.S Government survey, levels of essential minerals in crops were found to have declined by up to 68 per cent over a four year period in the 1970’s.
13. Accidents and Illness
Burns lead to a loss of protein and essential trace nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Surgery increases the need for zinc, vitamin E and other nutrients involved in the cellular repair mechanism. The repair of broken bones will be retarded by an inadequate supply of calcium and vitamin C and conversely enhanced by a full dietary supply. The challenge of infection places high demand on the nutritional re s of zinc, magnesium and vitamins B5, B6 and zinc.
14. Stress
Chemical, physical and emotional stresses can increase the body’s requirements for vitamins B2, B5, B6 and C. Air pollution increases the requirements for vitamin E.
15. P.M.T
Research has demonstrated that up to 60 per cent of women suffering from symptoms of premenstrual tension, such as headaches, irritability, bloated ness, breast tenderness, lethargy and depression can benefit from supplementation with vitamin B6.
16. Teenagers
Rapid growth spurts such as in the teenage years, particularly in girls, place high demands on nutritional re s to underwrite the accelerated physical, biochemical and emotional development in this age group. Data from the USA Ten State Nutrition Survey (in 1968-70 covering a total of 24,000 families and 86,000 individuals) showed that between 30-50 per cent of adolescents aged 12-16 had dietary intakes below two thirds of the recommended daily averages for Vitamin A, C, calcium and iron.
17. Pregnant Women
Pregnancy creates higher than average demands for nutrients, to ensure healthy growth of the baby and comfortable confinement for the mother. Nutrients which typically require increase during pregnancy are the B-group, especially B1, B2, B3, B6, folic acid and B12, A, D, E and the minerals calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and phosphorous.
The Ten State Nutrition Survey in the USA in 1968-70 showed that as many as 80 per cent of the pregnant women surveyed had dietary intakes below two thirds of recommended daily allowances. Professional assessment of nutrient requirements during pregnancy should be sought.
18. Oral Contraceptives
Oral Contraceptives can decrease absorption of folic acid and increase the need for vitamin B6, and possibly vitamin C, zinc and riboflavin. Approximately 22 per cent of Australian women aged 15-44 are believed to be on “the pill” at any one time.
19. Light Eaters
Some people eat very sparingly, even without weight reduction goals. US dietary surveys have shown that an average woman maintains her weight on 7560 kilojoules per day, at which level her diet is likely to be low in thiamine, calcium and iron.
20. The Elderly
The aged have been shown to have a low intake of vitamins and minerals, particularly iron, calcium and zinc. Folic acid deficiency is often found, in conjunction with vitamin C deficiency. Fibre intake is often low. Riboflavin (B2) and pyridoxine (B6) deficiencies have also been observed. Possible causes include impaired sense of taste and smell, reduced secretion of digestive enzymes, chronic disease and, maybe, physical impairment.
21. Lack of Sunlight
Invalids, shift workers and people whose exposure to sunlight may be minimal can suffer from insufficient amounts of vitamin D, which is required for calcium metabolism, without which rickets and osteoporosis (bone thinning) has been observed. Ultraviolet light is the stimulus to vitamin D formation in skin. It is blocked by cloud, fog, smog, smoke, ordinary window glass, curtains and clothing. The maximum recommended daily supplement intake of vitamin D is 400 i.u.
22. Bio-Individuality
Wide fluctuations in individual nutrient requirements from the official recommended average vitamin and mineral intakes are common, particularly for those in high physical demand vocations, such as athletics and manual labor, taking into account body weight and physical type. Protein intake influences the need for vitamin B6 and vitamin B1 is linked to kilo joule intake.
23. Low Body Reserves
Although the body is able to store reserves of certain vitamins such as A and E, Canadian autopsy data has shown that up to thirty percent of the population have reserves of vitamin A so low as to be judged “at risk”. Vitamin A is important to healthy skin and mucous membranes (including the sinus and lungs) and eyesight.
24. Athletes
Athletes consume large amounts of food and experience considerable stress. These factors affect their needs for B-group vitamins, vitamin C and iron in particular. Tests on Australian Olympic athletes and A-grade football players, for example, have shown wide ranging vitamin deficiencies.
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